According to Socrates, Eros leads us from loving beauty to loving Beauty. But how does one progress along this ladder? Is it a natural progression? We'll come back to this question in a minute.
In his gospel and epistles, John the beloved apostle presents a different word for love, Agape. John uses this Greek word in a revolutionary way. He defines it as the unconditional and selfless love of God. It is this kind of love that we are to show one another.
"Beloved, let us love one another, for love is from God, and whoever loves has been born of God and knows God." 1 John 4:7
In his famous passage in 1 Corinthians 13, St. Paul extols agape love over the other two theological virtues of faith and hope. He states, rather radically, that all virtuous action are worthless if not performed in love.
This brings up two questions. First, how do we synthesize the Classical and the Christian loves, The Eros and the Agape? Second, how does someone know what Beauty is--how to desire truly beautiful things? Enter St. Augustine, who was a brilliant philosopher deeply steeped in, and sometimes deeply conflicted about, the connection between the two.
St. Augustine agreed with the Platonic idea that Eros, desire, leads us to the divine. He agreed that we desire things because we are not whole; that we love the beautiful so that it can become a part of us. Augustine, however, disagreed that Eros, on its own, leads us to goodness. He argued that we must first be transformed in order to know what to desire. This transformation, he thought, occurs from the Agape love that God shows us. God first loves us, suffers with us, changes us. Then we, touched by His Agape love, are able to desire (i.e. have Eros for) the True, Good, and Beautiful. Furthermore, and most importantly, we are able to love (Agape) others.
Love is the starting place and the ending place of all the virtues. From Plato, we learn that our natural desire for beauty can lead us to desire beautiful actions, ideas, and even the divine. From St. John we learn that the ultimate love is God's sacrificial love for us, which we need to share with others. From St. Augustine, we learn that these two loves, Eros and Agape, are not mutually exclusive.
It is important not only to love good things, but also to have correctly ordered love. Ordered love implies desiring things in the right amount and the right way. For example, we might love our child and our morning cup of coffee, but we should love each to a different degree and in a different way. Discerning how to order our love requires temperance and prudence, two other virtues to be covered later.